Igneous rocks (from the Greek word for fire) form from when hot, molten rock crystallizes and solidifies The melt originates deep within the Earth near active plate boundaries or hot spots, then rises toward the surface Igneous rocks are divided into two groups, intrusive or extrusive, depending upon where the molten rock solidifies
Rock density is very sensitive to the minerals that compose a particular rock type Sedimentary rocks (and granite), which are rich in quartz and feldspar, tend to be less dense than volcanic rocks And if you know your igneous petrology, you will see that the more mafic (rich in magnesium and iron) a rock is, the greater its density
Pegmatite is an intrusive igneous rock made up of large interlocking crystals The word "pegmatite" comes from the Greek word pegnymi, which means "to bind together," referring to the entwined feldspar and quartz crystals commonly found in the rock Rocks that display large, granular crystal structure are called "pegmatitic"
When magma remains inside the Earth, cooling occurs more slowly, and large crystals form Such igneous rocks are called intrusive rocks because they form in the Earth's interior Porphyritic rocks are igneous rocks that have large crystals, called phenocrysts, within a small crystal ground mass
Intrusive rock mapping for commercial quarry development is not common, as a result, there is a lack of reference materials in mining-geophysics literature which can be used This is because most quarries are established in volcanic environments where the target rock is situated on the surface and the task of exploratory mapping does not exist
properties of the rocks at a site or of the rock materials to be used in the construc tion, rules for rock classification and no menclature might seem to be irrelevant On the contrary, petrographic classification of rocks is based upon composition, tex ture, and structure--the sa_me character istics upon which the rock _properties depend
Intrusive rock is formed when magma penetrates existing rock, crystallizes and solidifies underground to form intrusions, for example plutons, batholiths, dikes, sills, laccoliths, and volcanic necks Some geologists use the term plutonic rock synomymously with intrusive rock but other geologists subdivide intrusive rock, by crystal size, into coarse-grained plutonic rock (typically formed
Trap rock has been used to construct buildings and churches: Trinity Church on the Green with trap rock quarried from Eli Whitney 's quarry, is a particularly colorful example of a red-orange-brown-colored, natural-faced trap rock It was also used for foundations and railroad beds in the New Haven area
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